How do I cite traditional knowledge or material from an Indigenous Elder?
Some citation styles address traditional knowledge or material from an Indigenous Elder, while others do not. For those styles which do not, we have adapted the information developed by Norquest College; it is used with permission.
Your citation may include information such as the name of the Elder and the name of their Nation, community, or Treaty.
Some citation styles have different requirements for certain types of information. For example, in APA 7th Edition Citation Style, a conversation between you and an Indigenous Elder or Knowledge-Keeper is referenced in-text but not included in the Reference List at the end of your paper, while information that is recorded in a format that can be retrieved again, such as video or audio, is cited in-text and included in your Reference List. Be sure to check the specific requirements for the citation style you are using.